Jacques Orban, Schlumberger
OFS, France Oil & Gas / Geophysics & Well optimization:
Status & Trend in Measurements & Controls
Most of the important new Oil&Gas discoveries are located in remote
or offshore deep-water regions of complex geology that makes recovery
expensive and technically difficult. Service quality and safety records
are key parameters in those risky environments, while environmental impact
has to be reduced. The development of these complex reservoirs is only
feasible after proper assessment of their potential. Their potential depends
on various parameters such as its size, the amount of hydrocarbon in place
and the ease of production. In parallel, depletion of mature fields is
forcing production down in most OECD countries (United States, Canada,
North Sea). However, because of the need to produce locally, there is
the need to develop technology for identifying small pockets of untapped
reserves, better produce oil & gas and extend life of those fields.
Cost of service delivery is a key driver in this highly competitive market.
Seismic prospection determines global parameters of the
reservoir, such as extend, general thickness, shape, and depth. Today's
seismic acquisition systems consist of large multi-layer synchronized
networks of digital high performance sensors. These systems improved the
limits of image quality, via reduction of all perturbation effects: for
example, each marine component is positioned extremely accurately, via
complex feedback navigation system. These systems are based on highly
integrated intelligent microsystems, under control of a digital master
unit. Additional reservoir information is obtained by logging technique,
either via wireline or "Logging While Drilling" conveyance systems.
Nuclear & Electrical measurements allow the determination of various
formation parameters. High accuracy is obtained after proper correction
of various perturbations. These high performances are achieved via the
use of integrated system under control of digital units. Furthermore,
formation pressure, fluid mobility, fluid composition can be obtained
in down-hole conditions by wireline "dynamic testers". These
tools are highly integrated electro-hydraulic-mechanical robots operating
in harsh environments, and performing high quality pressure and optical
Today's wells can be drilled following complex trajectories,
thanks to "Measurement-While-Drilling" (MWD), "Logging-While-drilling"
(LWD) and "Steerable Systems". MWD performed high accuracy surveys
transmitted to surface via acoustical telemetry in drilling mud. "Rotary
Steerable systems"(RSS) are self-controlled robot capable to drill
the hole following a pre-defined trajectory. These measurements and controls
technology can be combined to place the "horizontal" wells in
optimum position versus the reservoir, for long and high hydrocarbon production.
Measurement and drilling systems have seen drastic
evolution in recent years, thanks to high integration between sensors,
acquisition electronic, digital control systems. Electro-mechanical robot
systems have been introduced recently to perform operation in harsh conditions.
More evolution is foreseen in the near future to continue the trend of
improvements required for efficient energy supply.
Philippe M. Teillet,
Centre for Remote Sensing, Canada Towards Integrated Earth Sensing: >From
Space to In Situ
This paper describes a new initiative called the In Situ Sensor Measurement
Assimilation Program - ISSMAP, with the goal of developing new data acquisition
strategies and systems for an integrated Earth sensing approach to monitoring
remote environments, hazards, disasters, and natural resources. In particular,
ISSMAP is taking advantage of the converging technologies of micro-sensors,
computers, and wireless telecommunications to design and deploy intelligent
sensorwebs for in situ data acquisition.
- Geophysics & Environmental Control
M. Teillet - Canada Centre for Remote Sensing
Tucholka, University Paris XI, France Major challenges For Environmental Studies
This talk will describe the growing necessity for progress in qualitative
and quantitative solutions for major and fast changes in global, regional
and local environment due to increasing effects of human activity. The
addressed factors are ranging from global or continental scale processes
like erosion, mineral transfer from continents to marine basins, geochemical
and biological factors in carbon dioxide system to local processes like
water flow in soils, pollutants and their transfer into aquifers. In numerous
cases new approach is necessary to provide reliable information about
Donzier, A.R.H. Goodwin, M. Manrique, Olivier Vancauwenberghe,
Schlumberger Doll Research, USA Resonant MEMS Microsensors for the Measurement
of Fluid Density and Viscosity
Resonant MEMS microsensors, based on vibrating plates, have been developed
to determine the density and viscosity of fluids. The process used to
manufacture the resonant sensors from Silicon On Insulator (SOI) wafers
will be described along with the methods adopted to package the MEMS devices.
Finite element analysis with ANSYS was used in the design to estimate
the device response (vibration modes and frequencies) and to optimize
the vibration detection by locating adequately the piezoresistive strain
gauges. Measurements of the resonance frequency and amplitude or Q factor
are combined with an electromechanical model to determine the density
and viscosity of the fluid surrounding the vibrating plate.
Using a resonant MEMS sensor with a plate vibrating in flexion, densities
in the range of 1 to 1100 kg/m3, and viscosities in the range of 10 to
1000 ìPa s, were determined for a natural gas, a reservoir oil,
and formation water. After a simple calibration of the device by fitting
only three adjustable parameters to measurements with argon, these values
were found to lie within ±1% for density and ±5% for viscosity,
when compared with either accepted literature or experimental values.
The reference experimental results were obtained with techniques that
utilize principles different from the vibrating MEMS and have quite different
sources of systematic error.